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neptuno740
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LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERICA

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Aunque parezca un chiste de mal gusto , las alpacas , llamas, guanacos , y demas camelidos son originarios de Norteamerica  ( demostrado con varios fosiles de llamas y camelidos encontrados en diversas regiones de EEUU que datan  40 millones de anos)  de donde emigraron a Sudamerica hace 3 millones de anos, los camelidos originarios del norte de nuestro continente despues se extinguieron hace 12,000 anos , en el  fin de la era glaciar.

 

 

 

The origin of Llamas



Llamas are members of the Camelid family which, according to scientists, originated on the central plains of North America about 40 million years ago. The Camelid family includes camels, alpacas, llamas, guanacos, and vicunas. Though extinct in North America, they previously migrated and were domesticated from guanacos in the Andean highlands of Peru thousands of years ago.

 

They migrated to South America about 3 million years ago. By the end of the last ice age(10,000–12,000 years ago), camelids were extinct in North America.  As of 2007, there were over 7 million llamas and alpacas in South America and, due to importation from South America in the late 20th century, there are now over 158,000 llamas and 100,000 alpacas in the US and Canada.

 

The 19th century discoveries of a vast and previously unexpected extinct Tertiary fauna of North America, as interpreted by paleontologists Leidy, Cope, and Marsh, aided understanding of the early history of this family.

 

Llamas were not always confined to South America; abundant llama-like remains were found in Pleistocene deposits in the Rocky Mountains and in Central America. Some of the fossil llamas were much larger than current forms. Some species remained in North America during the last ice ages. North American llamas are categorized as a single extinct genus, Hemiauchenia. Llama-like animals would have been a common sight 25,000 years ago, in modern-day California, Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Missouri, and Florida.

 

The camelid lineage has a good fossil record. Camel-like animals have been traced from the thoroughly differentiated, modern species back through early Miocene forms. Their characteristics became more general, and they lost those that distinguished them as camelids; hence, they were classified as ancestral artiodactyls.

 

No fossils of these earlier forms have been found in the Old World, indicating that North America was the original home of camelids, and that Old World camels crossed over via the Bering Land Bridge. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama three million years ago allowed camelids to spread to South America as part of the Great American Interchange, where they evolved further. Meanwhile, North American camelids died out at the end of the Pleistocene.

Papel
neptuno740
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Re: LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERI

Este un fossil en perfecto estado de Llama encontrado en la Florida

 

 

Hemiauchenia macrocephala, (large-headed llama) is a late Pleistocene llama  that was recovered in a fissure fill deposit in Florida.  This fossil species of  llama was long-legged, standing nearly two meters high at the shoulder.  The specimen  shown here is pristinely preserved and unique in that the vast majority of the bones  are from a single individual, a rarity in the Florida fossil record.

The Hemiauchenia lineage, although now extinct, extends back into Florida's  Miocene record, some 9 million years ago.  It is one of the earliest known llamines  and one of the largest ever recovered.

 

 

jeff8150
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Re: LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERI

Buen dato. Esa llama era enorme.

 

En todo caso esos auquénidos han formado parte del entorno y fauna natural en la que se desenvolvieron las culturas andinas. Eso también es innegable y forma parte de nuestra cultura, independientemente de donde se originaron o procedieron.

 

Saludos

 

:smileyvery-happy:edos:

Papel
neptuno740
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Re: LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERI

Eran de 2 metros  y cabeza grande , felizmente que emigraron camelidos a Sudamerica antes que se extinguieran en Norteamerica por la era glaciar  

 

Larged Headed Llama
Introduction The larged headed llama is an indirect ancestor to the llama. Its latin name is Hemiauchenia macrocephala. Hermiachenia means migration and is the name of a genus. Macrocephala can be broken down into two parts, macro which means giant and cephala which can be defined as camel. Put together, macrocephala means giant camel.


Extinction pressure Larged headed llamas lived on earth for around 7 million years, starting to exist in the Miocene Period ten million years ago and becoming extinct by the end of the Pleistocene Period, which happened three millions years before now. The climate was the main influence in their extinction, as the Pliocene Period which took place after the Miocene Period started to have weather changes with the temperature becoming colder and colder. Scientists estimate that by then, glaciers were already covering places located near the equator. The ice age happened during the Pleistocene period and the large headed llama, covered in nothing but a coat made out of short fur, freezed to death or couldn't find food which wasn't frozen so they starved to death.
Taxonomy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Artiodactyla Suborder: Tylopoda Family: Camelidae Genus: Hermiachenia Species: Macrocephala

 

Habitat The larged headed llama orginally lived in North America on the Southern Central Plains, otherwised known as the Great Plains. The Central Plain stretched on for more than one million and three hundred kilometres square, across many states such as Florida, California, Oklahoma, Colorado, Washington, Mexico, Kansas, Nebraska, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. Animals like the American bison live on the Central Plains. The average temperature on the Southern Central Plains is roughly twenty two degrees celcius back then and the average rainfall is often less than twenty five centimetres, meaning that the place, although at a pleasant temperature will often experience droughts. The Central Plain was relatively flat with fields covered in short grass, the favourite food of the larged headed llama. Tall trees were often seen growing there too, with one of them every couple of dozen of metres, making excellent shelter for the large headed llama to rest under in the summer or when its raining.
The larged headed llama rarely lived alone. It much preferred to share its habitat with others, especially females lammas. A male larged headed lamma have been known to been followed around by more than twenty or more female or young llamas while a male who has not fully matured but is too old to remain in such a group lives with other male larged headed llamas. Just like their llama counterparts, larged headed llamas are willing to support and wait on for each other. For most of their day, the larged headed llama has also been estimated to act much like most camelids, spending most of their time grazing in herds in their territory.
The larged headed llamas decided to migrate to South America for unknown reasons in a process known as the Great American Interchange during the Pliocene period. They walked over the bridge formed by the rising of the Ithumus of Panama connecting the North and South American Continents. They settled at the foot of the Andes mountain where the temperature was not as hot as it was on the Great Plains but the grass was just as plentiful.
After some time in South America, the larged headed llama, because of the slightly colder but wetter environment, started to evolve generation by generation, creating animals like the guacca who has a slightly thicker coat but shorter legs. The Guacca eventually evolved into the current day llama.


Structural Adaptation
1. Teeth and structure of head A larged headed llama will have two sets of teeth in its lifetime, much like humans, gorillas and.baboons The first set of teeth isn't put into much use, seeing that the larged headed lamma usually feeds from its mother. The second set of teeth however, which finishs growing by the end of its first birthday is comprised of thirty two teeth- a mixture of canines, incisors, premolars and molars, helps the larged headed llama alot when it eats. The canines are used to hold down the grass, the incisors are used to shear the strands apart, the premolars, located bewteen the canine and molars, and the molars are used to grind and chew food.This effective combination breaks down the grass into little shreds before swallowing, meaning that the digestion time will be a lot faster, seeing that a large headed llama often eats up to eight percent of its own weight per day. To add to this, the larged headed llama has a much larger head in proportion to its body than most other animals . This is because they need extremely large muscles attached to their jaws in order to help them chew through long periods of time.
Environmental pressure that caused this specific placement of teeth and the largeness of the head is the type and amount of food they eat. Grass takes a lot to break down because of its steady build and because a large proportion of it is made out of fibre.
2. Size (especially length of neck) The larged headed llama is the largest camelid on earth to date. Some adult larged headed llamas can reach the height of over three metres measured from head to feet and the average height is two metres and a half. Their average weight is over two hundred kilograms. Since larged headed llamas migrated to the South America to live later on at the period, size became extremely important to them as the snowing in places like the Andes mountain often prevented them from being able to get food. Their bodies, being so large, could store alot of fat for them when there was still some grass left. Their long necks allowed them to reach weeds already covered lightly be snow. Having a long neck also means that they can eat in a much more comfortable **noallow** and could escape faster if they spot enemies as their front legs do not need to be bent while eating. Also, it can look, in one glance, over a larger distance then animals with shorter necks.
An environmental pressure which may have formed this particular adaptation is how hard food is to find in the time period larged headed llamas were living in. That and the constant need to stay alert in case they get attacked by predators whilst finding things to eat may have caused them to have a longer neck and a larger torso.
Behavioural Adaptation 1. Communication Method Larged headed llamas communicate with a unique set of body movements and sounds. For example, when another herd approaches their territory, they will let out a loud and high pitched scream to scare them off. However, if the larged headed llama who approaches is in the herd, the llamas will not only let them pass but also emit a low hum and nuzzle them with their head as a sign of welcome. Another example is when llamas discover something new. Even if the object is not producing any sort of sound, their ears will immediately stand tall and their tails will start wagging as a way to attract their herd's attention. Another obvious posture is when the animal feels threatened by others in the herd. They will stand tall and throw their heads back to make themselves seem stronger.
The environmental pressure that made it neccessary for all larged headed llamas to learn this set of communication method , developed by the llamas themselves, is because that larged headed llamas like to live in herds . In order to show each other what they mean instantly, clear symbols like those listed above are being used.
2. Spitting Spitting is a unique defense for camels and llamas. A sticky, green, sour (if you happen to taste it) and extremely smelly substance is fired by the camel when it feels threatened. That substance is actually cod taken from the first rumen (refer to physiological adaptation below for the definition for rumen) and is usually half digested grass or hay. As they prepare to **noallow** their attack, their ears will be drawn as back as possible and their heads will be manuveured pretty close to the head of its target so that the chance of missing becomes very low. After the pellet leaves the mouth, a larged headed llamas mouth will usually hang open for the next ten to fifteen minutes as the taste is so bad. That or, if there is more food nearby, it will try to sweeten the feeling of its mouth and gouge its mouth with that. Spitting is normally the last warning it gives whatever is approaching it before attacking it with its legs or trying to ram them with its strong chest. Spitting is a trait carried over to evolved versions of camelids.
Spitting is a way to tell the enemy that a llama is being serious. The environmental pressure which has caused the invention of spitting is because spitting is mostly used on organisms which the larged headed llama do not want to cause bodily harm in the first place, but is annoyed at the way they are acting near them. It is important that spitting exists, because it is often used as a way to discipline younger larged headed llamas while adult larged headed llamas wanted to tell them off, but they in no means, want to hurt them permantly.


Physiological Adaptation 1. Stomach A larged headed llama's stomach is divided into three compartments.
The first section is known as the rumen and is the place food arrives at once it passes through the esophagus. As the rumen fills up or at the llamas' own leisure, it will regurgitate the food inside it and rechew it strand by strand, further mixing it with their siliva. The rechewed food is known as cud. It is possible to spot the cud travelling up its throat as it regurgitates. Usually, the first compartment of the stomach will retract three to four times per minute for food to go back up to the larged headed llama's mouth. After the food has been rechewed, it is sent down to the second compartment where the same procedure happens to it. In the second compartment, there is also a cell lining which helps ferment the cud. By the time the grass has passed through the third compartment, nearly all nutrients would have been absorbed by the llamas and what remains is made into small pellets ready to be excreted. The same process also happens to any liquids they consume, except that the larged headed llama will not chew on that.
An environmental pressure that could have given rise to this adaption is the fact that food can be hard to find (especially if the llamas are living in the desert and not in grasslands) so holding onto the nutrients becomes extremely important. That or improper digestion which may lead to stomach aches, pain, vomiting and such.

 

Bronze
callalilies11
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Re: LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERI

Interesante en verdad, Neptuno. Ellos emigraron al sur. Vinieron para quedarse, forman de nuestra riqueza, nuestra fauna. Tan es asi que estan representados en nuestros simbolos nacionales, dos de ellos, la vicuña en escudo peruano y la alpaca en el boliviano. Es tarea de nuestros gobiernos protegerlos, preservarlos, evitar su extinsión, alli en donde ellos encontraron el perfecto habitat.

Diamante
diafana
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Re: LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERI

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NO ES CIERTO, EN ESE EPOCA LA PALABRA "NORTEAMERICA" NO EXISTIA, Y SE LA INVENTO HACE SOLO POCO MAS DE 500 ANIOS ATRAS.

 

HACE MAS DE  DIEZ MIL ANIOS EL LUGAR SE CONOCIA COMO "ISLA TORTUGA. "

 


neptuno740 ha escrito:

Aunque parezca un chiste de mal gusto , las alpacas , llamas, guanacos , y demas camelidos son originarios de Norteamerica 

Papel
neptuno740
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Re: LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERI


diafana ha escrito:

NO ES CIERTO, EN ESE EPOCA LA PALABRA "NORTEAMERICA" NO EXISTIA, Y SE LA INVENTO HACE SOLO POCO MAS DE 500 ANIOS ATRAS.

 

HACE MAS DE  DIEZ MIL ANIOS EL LUGAR SE CONOCIA COMO "ISLA TORTUGA. "

 


neptuno740 ha escrito:

Aunque parezca un chiste de mal gusto , las alpacas , llamas, guanacos , y demas camelidos son originarios de Norteamerica 



SE SOBRENTIENDE QUE ME REFIERO A LO QUE ES NORTEAMERICA , ACTUALMENTE , TAMPOCO EXISTIA LA PALABRA LLAMA , NI FLORIDA O UTAH , NI SIQUIERA EXISTIAN PALABRAS HACE 40 MILLONES DE ANOS :muygracioso:

Papel
neptuno740
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Re: LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERI

Camel Llama Fossils Prehistoric  Camelids of Florida

 

Paleollamas of the Pleistocene Period in Florida.

Camels and llamas evolved in North America and these camel llama fossils are very abundant in the fossil record, of Florida.  The Camelids were most diverse in the Miocene Period and went extinct in North America by the end of the Pleistocene Period.  Of the Camelidae, in Florida, three sub-Families existed:  Aepycamelinae (Giraffe-camels), Florida Tragulinae and Camelinae.

The Giant Late Miocene “Giraffe Camel” was Aepycamelus.  This extinct camel lived, in Florida, during the Miocene Period 10-5 Million Years Ago.  It had long legs and a long S-shaped neck, which gave the camel a height of 10ft. (3M).  Considered fast runners, it had a pacing gait.  This Miocene mammal lived in the grasslands.

Other Prehistoric Camelids of the Miocene include three species of llamas or small camels.  Nothokemas floridanus was of the early Miocene.  Floridatragulus dolichanthereus was a strange early Miocene Camelid that had an unusually long skull and jaw.  Oxydactylus was an early Miocene camel.

 

Fossil Llama TeethFossil Llama Teeth
The more commonly found prehistoric llama was Paleolama mirifica, the one most closely related to modern llamas.  It was a short, stocky-legged built llama that lived in the open grasslands, in Florida, and fed on grass and leaves of bushes.   It was most likely hunted by the Jaguar.  The other common llama fossil is the large-headed llama Hemiauchenia macrocephala.  This prehistoric animal was a very tall and slender built llama standing 9ft.(3M) in height.

 

Fossil Llama Cannon bone or lower leg bone.Fossil Llama Cannon bone.
Camelids belong to a larger group of even-toed ungulates, called Artiodactyls.  On average, they live 30-50 years of age.  Old world camels have humps that store reserves of fatty tissue to give them energy and to help them survive without water for around two weeks and to go without food for a month.  Camels are able to endure a wide range of temperatures and consume a great quantity of water that most other animals could not.  They can fluctuate their body temperature during the day between 93F-107F (34C-41.5C), which gives them the ability not to sweat, so they maintain water.  They are very adaptable to their environment.

 


 

Diamante
diafana
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Re: LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO SON ORIGINARIOS DE NORTEAMERI

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neptuno740 ha escrito:



SE SOBRENTIENDE QUE ME REFIERO A LO QUE ES NORTEAMERICA , ACTUALMENTE , TAMPOCO EXISTIA LA PALABRA LLAMA , NI FLORIDA O UTAH , NI SIQUIERA EXISTIAN PALABRAS HACE 40 MILLONES DE ANOS :muygracioso:




Y HACE 5 BILLONES DE ANIOS NO EXISTIA NI LA TIERRA.......   LO QUE VES AHORA ES TODO ILUSION QUE  TROMPETEAS,  PERO PRONTO TODO DESAPARECERA COMO IGUALMENTE APARECIO'.    :carcajadas:

Diamante
diafana
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LA ALPACA , LLAMA ,GUANACO ORIGINARIOS DE TIERRA DEL FUEGO

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Ahora en serio, dudo de los estudios que traes.  Me parece que es una mentira mas para robar a la especie de los paises que Hugo Chavez encabeza y patentar los genes que deben ser muy utiles para producir toda clase de medicamentos y sustancias.   Se hace esto como forma preventiva para prevenir que paises digan que los camelidos les pertenecen como herencia patrimonial y que no se debe privatizar sus genes. 

 

Si Argentina esta llena de fosiles de dinosaurios porque mas bien no es que los animales se originaron en Sud America, fueron a NorteAmerica y despues que no les gusto por el frio de la edad de hielo se volvieron a sus casas que ya conocian antes de morir alli lejos en el norte.  Esto ocurre aun hoy con las personas.  Ademas que se sabe que la Selva Amazonica hay mas especies por metro cuadrado que en cualquier parte del mundo.  Y Que al llegar un navio a las costas brasileras y los marineros ya sin agua y a 15 millas en el mar fueron salvados al encontrar que el agua de mar se habia tornado dulce por el gran caudal del majestuoso Rio Amazonas.

 

Tambien sabemos por los viajes de Darwin que una vida unica, desconocida hasta entonces, rara y misterioso existia en las Islas Galapagos tambien en Sud America, y que ya habian desaparecido varias civilizaciones aun mas antiguas que los Mayas en la Selva Amazonica y que recien hoy encuentran vestigios de enormes ciudades perdidas bajo el manto de la densa selva.

 

Ademas porque los bisontes en NorteAmerica no escaparon a Sud America y no encontramos bisontes en Peru, Chile o Argentina. Esto hace venir abajo todo lo que los cientificos dicen sobre migracion de camelidos y con estas pocas palabras he comprobado sus mentiras.